Long Term Effects of Subliminal Mind Priming on Academic Performance
Research Paper No. 1946
of Subliminal Priming
on Academic Performance
Brian S. Lowery
Naomi I. Eisenberger
Curtis D. Hardin
Running Head: Long-term
Long-term Effects of Subliminal
Priming on Academic Performance
Brian S. Lowery
Naomi I. Eisenberger
University of California, Los Angeles
Curtis D. Hardin
University of Virginia
Forthcoming in Basic and Applied Social
This research examines the temporal range of subliminal priming effects on complex
behavior. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants were subliminally primed with words either related or unrelated to
intelligence before completing a practice exam, administered 1 to 4 days before an actual course midterm. Results
revealed that the intelligence primes increased performance on the midterm compared to neutral primes. Experiment 1
demonstrated that being told that the priming task was designed to help exam performance moderated the effect of
the intelligence primes. In Experiment 2, practice test performance mediated the effect of the primes on midterm
performance. These experiments demonstrated that subliminal priming may have long-term effects on real-world
behavior, and demonstrates one means by which long-term priming effects may occur.
The lay public has long been fascinated by the possibility that information
presented below the threshold of consciousness (i.e., subliminally) can affect
thoughts and behaviors. For example, concerns about the use of subliminal information in advertising grew so great
that the Federal Communications Committee decided to address it, and concluded that such tactics were “contrary to
the public interest (FCC, 1974).” Furthermore, companies continue to market and presumably profit from audio- and
videotapes purported to employ subliminal messages aimed at fixing ailments from low self-esteem to substance
Although marketers’ claims regarding products that supposedly employ subliminal
priming have not fared well in empirical tests, as many such claims have been debunked (Greenwald, Spangenberg,
Pratkanis, & Eskenazi, 1991; Pratkanis & Greenwald, 1988), there is quite a bit of evidence that subliminal
priming can affect behavior. These effects have been observed on a variety of behaviors, including social
cooperation, competitiveness, memory, hostility, and non-verbal demeanor (reviewed in Bargh & Chartrand, 1999;
Bargh & Ferguson, 2000; Dijksterhuis, Bargh, & Miedema, 2000; Wheeler & Petty, 2001). For example, (a)
older adults perform better on memory tests after subliminal exposure to words related to wisdom rather than
senility (Levy, 1996), (b) people act more interpersonally hostile after subliminal exposure to Black faces than
White faces (Bargh, Chen, & Burrows, 1996), and (c) new acquaintances get along better during a cooperative
task after subliminal exposure to an issue they assume they agree about rather than disagree about (Conley &
Though there is ample empirical evidence that subliminal primes can affect
behavior, questions persist about how long such priming effects might last as well as the means by which long-term
priming effects might occur. Although subliminal priming effects on complex behaviors are impressive, most outcomes
occur within a few minutes of the priming episode. Not surprisingly, many researchers believe that the behavioral
effects of subliminal priming are likely to diminish quickly over time, especially in response to naturally
occurring interference (Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg, 1998; Neuberg, 1988).
Despite doubts regarding the possibility of long-term behavioral effects of
subliminal priming, long-term effects of consciously perceived primes (i.e., supraliminal priming) on social
judgment suggest that foreclosure on such a possibility might be premature. Research on social judgment has shown
that supraliminal priming effects can be detected up to 24 hours after the priming episode (Srull & Wyer, 1979,
1980). There is also evidence that subliminal primes may affect individuals’ sense of self over considerable
periods of time. Specifically, there is evidence that priming the phrase “mommy and I” strengthens the correlation
between a number of relational constructs, such as attachment style, and depression over delays as long as four
months (Sohlberg & Birgegard, 2003).
Although there has been little follow-up of the long-term effects of subliminal
priming, research on supraliminal priming suggest that this type of persistence is due to a type of practice
effect. When a priming manipulation requires the same type of judgment as the outcome variable, the priming effect
may persist for extended periods of time (Smith & Branscombe, 1987, 1988). In these studies the prime is not
exerting a long-term effect in the sense that information brought to mind by
the prime continues to influence judgment; instead, the mode of judgment required by the prime becomes more readily
accessible in subsequent tasks that allow for the same type of judgment. One might conceive of this as a case in
which an applicable episode retrospectively renders the prime accessible (Hardin & Rothman, 1997), not unlike
the role of immediate retrieval cues on memory.
This interpretation of the persistence of priming effects is consistent with
research on the benefits of practice. For example, Kolers (1976) found that the benefits of reading a particular
passage upside-down could be detected up to a year later, as evidenced by a greater advantage in reading speed for
the practiced passage compared to unpracticed passages. These results suggest that if subliminal priming changes a
particular behavior in the short-term, this behavior may serve as practice, and thereby influence a similar task
even after a significant delay.
We investigated the possibility that subliminal priming can exert a long-term
influence on behavior by affecting a behavioral chain of events. Congruent with research illustrating the
persistence of practice effects (Kolers, 1976; Smith & Branscombe, 1987, 1988; Smith, Branscombe, &
Bormann, 1988) we hypothesized that subliminal priming may have long-term effects to the degree that the primes
influence behavior on a proximal task that serves as practice for a distal task of interest. We tested this
hypothesis on a behavior of high importance to our undergraduate sample: performance on an actual course
To explore the possibility that subliminal priming may have long-term effects on
academic performance, we subliminally exposed undergraduate students to words either related or unrelated to
intelligence. Immediately after exposure to the priming procedure we manipulated whether or not participants were
told the priming procedure was designed to improve test performance. Then we assessed their performance on two
exams, a practice exam administered in the same session as the priming procedure, and an actual course exam
administered one, three, or four days later. The manipulation of awareness allowed for a test of a signature
finding in the literature – that informing individuals of the potential effect of the priming task can reduce or
eliminate priming effects (Dijksterhuis, Bargh, & Miedema, 2000).
Seventy UCLA psychology undergraduate students (16 men, 46 women, 8 gender not
reported) who were enrolled in an introductory statistics course participated in the experiment (52.6% of the
class) in groups of 5 to 10 as part of a voluntary study session for an upcoming midterm. Everyone in the course
was eligible to participate.
All participants were exposed to the priming manipulation and completed the
practice exam one, three, or four days before the actual course exam. Students who volunteered for one of the three
study sessions were told that the study was designed to examine the relationship between perceptual processes and
The priming manipulation was a variation of a common paradigm in which
participants judge as quickly and accurately as possible whether briefly flashed letter strings appear on the right
or left side of a computer monitor (e.g., Devine, 1989). Each student was seated at a private computer terminal and
randomly assigned to be exposed to words either semantically related to intelligence or semantically unrelated to
intelligence. Specifically, the intelligence primes were intelligent, smart, brilliant, bright, talented, sharp,
clever, brainy, gifted, educated, genius, and learned. The neutral words were intact, smock, birch, bring, tale,
shock, cloves, brawn, grass, edifice, garden, and lane. Except for the prime words, the conditions were identical.
For each trial of the perceptual task, three asterisks appeared in the center of the screen for 500ms to provide a
focal point for participants. Students were then exposed to a random string of letters (150ms) that served as a
backward mask for a prime word (34ms); the prime word and mask appeared on either the right or left side of the
screen. Participants pressed the key labeled “L” if the string appeared on the left side, and the key labeled “R”
if the string appeared on the right side. An identifying beep after each response indicated whether the judgment
was correct or incorrect. Each trial was separated by a 500ms interval in which the screen was blank.
Each participant was randomly assigned to a condition of the awareness
manipulation, which was presented on the computer immediately following the priming procedure. The awareness
manipulation consisted of a computer message after the last priming trial. In the informed condition participants
were told, “You have completed the perceptual task. We had you complete the perceptual task first because it is
designed to improve test performance.
We will provide you with more information about the nature
of this study after the midterm. You may start working on the practice test
now.” In the uninformed condition participants were told, “You have completed the perceptual task. You may
start working on the practice test now.”
Each participant took as much time as needed to complete the 24-item practice exam
at individual desks. Following this exam, participants completed a brief questionnaire. In addition to basic
demographic information, students indicated on 7-point scales how hard they tried on the practice items, how
anxious they were about the upcoming exam, and their expectations for their performance on the upcoming exam (“What
do you think your midterm score (%) will be?”). Participants were then probed for suspicion regarding the nature of
the experiment. Finally, participants were allowed to see the practice exam answer key. One, three, or four days
later participants took the course exam (37 items) on which the practice exam was modeled. In a class session
following the course exam, participants were extensively debriefed.
Results and Discussion
To ensure that the primes were subliminal, we tested a separate sample of 20
participants on their ability to consciously perceive the primes in 20 trials (10 smart primes, 10 neutral primes).
Following each subliminal prime presentation, participants were asked to decide whether the prime word was a word
related to the concept, “smart,” or a word unrelated to the concept, “smart.” Participants scored no better than
chance on this task (percentage correct: M = 48.75%, SD = 4.55%).
Responses of participants in the focal experiment provided corroborating evidence
that the primes were subliminal. When informed that words had been presented in the perceptual judgment task, only
one participant correctly guessed any of the words used as primes. That person
was excluded from all analyses leaving a total of 69 participants.
In all analyses, practice exam and course exam performance were scored as
percentages of the total number of correct responses. Performance on the practice exam (M = 54.35, SD = 18.59)
suggested that it was much more difficult than the course exam (M = 71.35, SD = 14.44). However, students who took
the practice exam (M = 73.60, SD = 12.61) outperformed those who did not (M =
68.90, SD = 15.96), as indicated by a marginally significant effect of practice test session participation on
course exam scores, F(1, 131) = 3.56, p = .06, η2 = .027.
Practice exam performance. To test the hypothesis that subliminally priming
intelligence improved immediate exam performance, we analyzed practice exam performance in an ANCOVA with gender
(male vs. female), prime (intelligence vs. neutral), awareness (informed vs. uninformed), and delay (1 day, 3 days,
4 days) as between-subjects variables and a previous midterm score as the covariate. Prior academic performance was
used as a covariate because we expect quite a bit of variance in test scores to be attributable to a number of
variables (work ethic, prior academic preparation, aptitude, etc.) captured succinctly by prior academic
performance. Controlling for this variance allowed for a more sensitive test of the effect of the primes.
Predictably, previous midterm score was unaffected by the experimental manipulations (all ps > .19),
and was significantly related to practice exam performance, F(1, 60) = 5.45, p <
.05, η2 = .123, thus reported means are adjusted for the covariate. This
analysis revealed a marginally significant interaction between prime and awareness, F(1, 60) = 2.95, p =
.09, η2 = .070. Participants in the uninformed conditions performed better
after exposure to intelligent primes (M = 57.41, SE = 5.05) than neutral
primes (M = 47.80, SE = 7.12), however, this difference was not statistically
significant, F(1, 28) = 2.00, p = .18, η2 = .100. In the informed conditions,
there was no difference between participants exposed to the intelligence primes (M = 52.50, SE = 5.56) versus the
neutral primes (M = 54.62, SE = 5.96), F < 1.
Additionally, there was a marginally significant awareness by gender
F(1, 60) = 3.07, p = .09, η2 = .073, such that in the uninformed conditions women
(M = 56.09, SE = 5.12) outperformed men (M = 49.78, SE = 7.37); while in the informed conditions men (M = 54.68, SE
= 7.67) outperformed women (M = 52.81, SE = 4.03). Neither of the simple main effects was significant. No other
effects were significant.
Midterm performance. To test the hypothesis that subliminally priming intelligence
can produce long-lived benefits for academic performance, we analyzed actual course exam performance using an
ANCOVA with gender (male vs. female), prime (intelligence vs. neutral), awareness (informed vs. uninformed), and
delay (1 day, 3 days, 4 days) as the between-subject factors and previous midterm score as the covariate. As
before, the covariate was significantly related to course exam performance, F(1, 60) = 10.95, p < .01, η2 = .219, therefore reported means are adjusted for the covariate.
There was a significant prime by awareness interaction, F(1, 60) = 6.01, p
< .05, η2 = .133. As shown in Figure 1, in the uninformed conditions participants performed better after
exposure to intelligence primes (M = 77.03, SE = 2.48) than neutral primes (M = 64.40, SE = 3.47), F(1, 28) = 9.66, p < .01, η2 = .349, but in the informed conditions participants
exposed to the intelligence primes (M = 70.66, SE = 3.45) did not differ significantly from those exposed to the
neutral primes (M = 78.38, SE = 3.74), F < 1. Further exploration of this
interaction revealed that participants exposed to the intelligence words did not differ as a function of the
awareness manipulation, F < 1. In contrast, when exposed to the neutral words, participants performed better
after being informed as compared to uninformed that the perceptual task was designed to improve their
performance, F(1, 27) = 5.41, p < .05, η2 = .241. No other effects were
significant. This experiment provides evidence that subliminal primes can affect conscious
behavior over significant delays between the exposure to the primes and the
behavior of interest. The inability to detect a significant effect of the prime on the practice test
precluded the possibility of observing significant mediation of the priming effect on the course exam,
despite obtaining the expected pattern of findings. However, this may have been due to insufficient power
rather than a direct effect of the subliminal primes on the course exam.
Experiment 2 was virtually identical to Experiment 1 except the test domain was
social psychology rather than statistics, and we excluded the manipulation of whether or not participants were told
that the priming procedure was intended to improve their exam performance. None of the participants were told the
perceptual task was designed to improve performance. The simplification of the experimental design provides greater
power to detect mediation by practice test performance.
Seventy-eight UCLA psychology undergraduate students (16 men, 60 women, 2 gender
not reported) enrolled in an introductory social psychology course participated in the experiment (25.7% of the
class) in groups of 5 to 10 as part of a voluntary study session for an upcoming midterm. Everyone in the course
was eligible to participate.
The procedure was identical to that used in Experiment 1, save two exceptions.
First, the manipulation of participants’ awareness of the potential effect of the priming procedure was eliminated.
Second, the priming trials were presented in two blocks. As in Experiment 1 participants completed 100 trials
during the experimental session, however 50 of these trials were presented before beginning the practice exam and
50 more were presented halfway through the practice exam (i.e., after the 12th item on the exam).
After exposure to the primes, participants completed the 24-item practice exam at
individual desks, and then completed the same post-priming questionnaire from Experiment 1. One, three, or four
days following the experimental session, participants took the actual course exam (50 items) on which the practice
exam was modeled, although none of the questions were identical. In a class session following the course exam,
participants were extensively debriefed.
Results and Discussion
Responses to questions regarding the experiment revealed that none of the
participants were aware of the true nature of the experiment. Further, when informed that words were presented in
the perceptual task, only one participant correctly guessed any of the words used as primes. That person was
excluded from all analyses leaving a total of 77 participants. Finally,
participant gender did not moderate any of the effects reported, and thus was not included as a factor in the
analyses that follow.2
Performance on the practice exam (M = 80.56, SD = 11.74) closely mirrored overall
performance on the course exam (M = 79.63, SD = 12.10). However, students who took the practice exam (M = 83.48, SD
= 8.81) outperformed those who did not (M = 77.88, SD = 12.88), as indicated by a significant main effect of
practice test session participation on course exam scores, F(1, 258) = 12.31,
p < .01, η2 = .046.
Practice exam performance. To test the hypothesis that subliminally priming
intelligence improved immediate exam performance, we analyzed practice exam performance in an ANCOVA with prime
(intelligent vs. neutral) and delay (1 day, 3 days, 4 days) as between-subjects variables and expected course exam
performance as the covariate. We used expected performance as a covariate because previous midterm scores were not
available and students were reluctant to report their current GPAs. For those students who provided their GPA,
expected course exam performance was reliably correlated with GPA, r(45) = .43, p < .01, and was unaffected by
the priming manipulation. The covariate was significantly related to practice exam performance, F(1,
70) = 19.59, p < .001, η2 = .219, and thus reported means were adjusted for the
covariate. Participants performed significantly better when exposed to intelligent words (M = 83.30,
SE = 1.75) than neutral words (M = 77.81, SE = 1.75), F(1, 70) = 4.83, p < .05, η2
= .065. Neither the main effect of delay, nor the interaction between delay and prime were significant.
Midterm performance. To test whether the long-term effect of subliminal priming
seen in the no awareness condition in Experiment 1 was replicated, we analyzed actual course exam performance in an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) with prime (intelligent vs.
neutral) and delay (1 day, 3 days, 4 days) as the between-subjects factors and expected course exam performance as
the covariate. Again, the covariate was
significantly related to course exam performance, F(1, 70) = 26.54, p < .001,
η2 = .275, therefore reported means were adjusted for the covariate. As predicted, participants performed better
when exposed to intelligent words (M = 85.26, SE = 1.28) than neutral
words (M = 81.33, SE = 1.28), F(1, 70) = 4.68, p < .05, η2 = .063. The delay
between the priming episode and the actual course exam did not significantly moderate the effect of the priming
manipulation on exam scores, F(1, 70) = 1.28, p = .29. No other effects were significant.
Mediational analyses. Mediational analyses were conducted to test the hypothesis
that the long-term effect of the subliminal priming manipulation was attributable to the effect of the prime on
practice exam performance. To replicate previous analyses examining the effect of prime on test performance, all
factors included in the ANCOVAs were included in the first step of each regression equation. When prime and
practice exam performance were allowed to simultaneously predict course exam performance, the previously
significant relationship between prime and course exam performance became
non-significant (β = .27, p = .31), while the relationship between practice
exam performance and course exam performance remained significant (β = .49, p < .001). The Baron and Kenny
(1986) modification of the Sobel test revealed that this mediation effect was significant, z = 2.10, p < .05.
Hence, the primes affected the course exam through their effect on the practice exam.
That subliminal priming can affect behavior outside the confines of the
laboratory, despite substantial delays between the prime and behavior, is particularly surprising given the breadth
and magnitude of variables with which this subtle manipulation competes (cf. Sohlberg & Birgegard, 2003).
Although participants were not aware of the presence of the primes, the priming manipulation, mediated by practice
test performance, affected performance over and above the effects of studying, test anxiety, personal motivation,
and the myriad other factors that affect academic performance.
The reported research replicates evidence that subliminal primes can exert
influence over long delays, and extends this effect to conscious behavior exhibited outside of the laboratory on a
dimension of substantial import to the participant sample. In Experiment 2, the direct effect of the subliminal
primes on a practice exam replicates previous research by showing that exam performance, a complex behavior likely
experienced as consciously controlled, can be influenced by stimuli presented outside of awareness. Furthermore, in
both Experiments 1 and 2, the subliminal priming manipulation continued to (indirectly) affect course exam
performance in two academic domains for as long as four days. In Experiment 2, the long-term effect of the
subliminal primes was mediated by practice test performance.
Although we believe the subliminal primes activated the trait of intelligence,
previous research suggests that primes that activate stereotypes or goals may also affect behavior. Given the
primes used, it would be a stretch to claim that the words represented a stereotype. None of the primes make
reference to a social group. The trait of intelligence is certainly associated with certain groups, but activation
of a group representation would have to be the result of trait activation. It
is more difficult to rule out the possibility that the primes activated a goal. Research on goal priming suggests
that such primes should cease to influence behavior once the goal is attained (Bargh et al., 2001). On one hand the
reported experiments are inconsistent with this expectation, and thus suggest against goal priming; the primes
affect course exam performance, even though individuals have already expressed “intelligence” on the practice test.
On the other hand, the experiments may provide a model for how goals can exert a sustained influence on behavior;
the behaviors associated with attaining the goal may affect similar behaviors in the future. In sum, although we
believe that the primes activated traits, it is also possible that the effect reflects the operation of goals.
Importantly, in either case this research makes the same contribution: Subliminal primes may affect behavior over
significantly delays by influencing a proximal behavior that affects temporally distant behaviors.
Although previous research suggests that awareness eliminates the effects of
priming, the findings observed in Experiment 1, though not necessarily inconsistent with this assertion, allow for
several alternative interpretations. First, consistent with the hypothesis that awareness eliminates the effect of
priming on behavior, when participants were informed of the intended effect of the priming procedure, there was no
difference in test scores between the intelligence and neutral priming conditions. However, participants exposed to
the intelligence primes performed at the same level regardless of whether or not they were informed. Thus, the
awareness manipulation may not have attenuated the effect of the intelligence primes at all, but rather elevated
the performance of those exposed to the neutral primes. A third alternative is also possible. The awareness
manipulation may have simultaneously eliminated the effect of the intelligence primes
and enhanced the performance of everyone who was informed that the priming procedure was designed to improve test
performance. Further research is necessary to disentangle these plausible alternative interpretations.
We hypothesized that the persistence of the observed priming effects was made
possible by the similarity between the practice test and course exam. The results from Experiment 2 supported this
hypothesis; the effect of the subliminal primes on the course exam was mediated by performance on the practice
test. The conjoining of practice effects with the supposed fleeting influence of subliminal trait priming suggests
a particularly subtle method to exert a relatively robust and persistent influence on behavior. However, there may
be other mechanisms that can explain the long-term effects of priming shown here. The relatively weak effect of the
subliminal primes on practice test performance in Experiment 1 leaves open the possibility that other mediators,
unrelated to practice exam performance, accounted for the effect of the primes on midterm performance. However,
these alternatives do not undermine the claim that subliminal priming may exert an indirect long-term influence on
behavior. The existence of multiple plausible mechanisms for the long-term mediated effect of priming suggests that
this area is a worthy direction for future research.
Finally, a word about the potential for practical uses of such effects seems in
order. We conducted this research to examine the possibility that subliminal primes can, in a straightforward
manner, affect behaviors important to people in their everyday lives. This aim limits the research in some ways.
For example, given the ability to observe mediation statistically it would have been unethical to deny participants
the opportunity to participate in the practice test because we expected the
practice test to improve performance. The inability to manipulate this variable limits our ability to perform the
strongest test of our mediational hypothesis. Similarly, we could not force individuals to participate against
their will, which allows for the possibility that the observed effects only hold for individuals that choose to
engage in practice tasks. On the other hand, the present experiments appear to add credibility to the possibility
of practical applications of subliminal priming effects, at least in certain circumstances. Using Experiment 2 as
an example, if all students enrolled in the class were surreptitiously exposed to intelligence primes immediately
prior to a practice exam for every exam given in the course, and the effect of the prime was the same for each
exam, 35% of the class would have received a higher grade on their academic transcripts. Of course, the potential
for future uses, and the means to avoid abuses, depends on a more complete understanding of the boundary conditions
of the effects reported in this research.
Bargh, J. A., & Chartrand, T. L. (1999). The unbearable automaticity of being.
American Psychologist, 54, 462-479.
Bargh, J. A., Chen, M., & Burrows, L. (1996). Automaticity of social behavior:
Direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 71, 230-244.
Bargh, J. A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the
automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 925-945.
Bargh, J. A., Gollwitzer, P. M., Lee-Chai, A., Barndollar, K., & Trötschel, R.
(2001). The automated will: Nonconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality and
Social Psychology, 81, 1014–1027.
Bargh, J.A., & Pietromonaco, P. (1982). Automatic information processing and
social perception: The influence of trait information presented outside of awareness on impression formation.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 437-449.
Baron, R. M. & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable
distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182.
Conley, T. D., & Hardin, C. D. (2002). Cognitive accessibility of the O.J.
Simpson trial regulates inter-ethnic relationships. Unpublished manuscript, University of California at Los
Devine, P. G. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled
components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 5-18.
Dijksterhuis, A., Bargh, J. A., & Miedema, J. (2000). Of men and mackerels:
Attention, subjective experience, and automatic social behavior. In H. Bless & J. P. Forgas (Eds.), The message
within: The role of subjective experience in social cognition and behavior (pp. 37-51). Philadelphia, PA:
Dijksterhuis, A., & Knippenberg, A. van (1998). The relation between
perception and behavior, or how to win a game of Trivial Pursuit. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74,
Dijksterhuis, A., & Knippenberg, A. van (2000). Behavioral indecision: Effects
of self-focus on automatic behavior. Social Cognition, 18, 55-74.
Federal Communications Committee (1974). Public Notice Concerning the Broadcast of
Information by Means of “Subliminal Perception” Techniques. Retrieved June 16, 2003, from http://www.lawpublish.com/fcc1.html.
Greenwald, A. G., Spangenberg, E. R., Pratkanis, A. R., & Eskenazi, J. (1991).
Double-blind tests of subliminal self-help audiotapes. Psychological Science, 2, 119-122.
Hardin, C. D. & Rothman, A. J. (1997). Rendering accessible information
relevant: The applicability of everyday life. In R. S. Wyer (Ed.), The automaticity of everyday life: Advances in
social cognition (pp. 143-156). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Levy, B. (1996). Improving memory in old age through implicit
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 1092-1107.
Moore, T. E. (1982). Subliminal advertising: What you see is what you get. Journal
of Marketing, 46, 38-47.
Neuberg, S. L. (1988). Behavioral implications of information presented outside of
conscious awareness: The effect of subliminal presentation of trait information on behavior in the Prisoner's
Dilemma Game. Social Cognition, 6, 207-230.
Pratkanis, A. R. & Greenwald, A. G. (1988). Recent perspectives on unconscious
processing: Still no marketing applications. Psychology and Marketing, 5, 337-353.
Smith, E. R. (1990). Content and process specificity in the effects of prior
experiences. In T. K. Srull & R. S. Wyer (Eds.), Content and process specificity in the effects of prior
experiences (pp. 1-59). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Smith, E. R., & Branscombe, N. R. (1987). Procedurally mediated social
inferences: The case of category accessibility effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23,
Smith, E. R., & Branscombe, N. R. (1988). Category accessibility as implicit
Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 24, 490-504.
Smith, E. R., Branscombe, N. R., & Bormann, C. (1988). Generality of the
effects of practice on social judgment tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 385-395.
Sohlberg, S. & Birgegard, A. (2003). Persistent complex subliminal activation
effects: First experimental observations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 302-316.
Srull, T. K., & Wyer, R. S. (1979). The role of category accessibility in the
interpretation of information about persons: Some determinants and implications. Journal of Personality and Social
Psychology, 37, 1660-1672.
Srull, T. K., & Wyer, R. S. (1980). Category accessibility and social
perception: Some implications for the study of person memory and interpersonal judgments.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 841-856.
Wheeler, S.C. & Petty, R.E. (2001). The effect of stereotype activation on
behavior: A review of possible mechanisms. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 797-826.
Copyright and Other Protection. The Site and much of the
text, images, graphics, information and other content of the Site (collectively, the “Content”) are protected by
copyright, trademark and other laws. We or others own the copyright and other rights in the Site and the
Content. Much of the Research Content consists of articles and other
scholarly writings posted by authors and
researchers according to their understanding of their rights in that
Some of the Posted Material consists of scholarly articles
deposited under a Harvard Open Access Policy (the “Open Access Policy Articles” or “OAP Articles”). Subject to the
other provisions of these Terms and Conditions, you may use,
reproduce, distribute, and display the OAP Articles for:
a. personal study;
b. teaching (including distribution of copies to students and
use in coursepacks and courseware programs);
c. research and scholarship (including computational research
uses such as data-mining and text-mining); and
d. provision of value-added services (including full-text
searching, cross-referencing, and citation extraction);
provided in each case that:
i. you will not sell or charge for any OAP Article (whether
or not any profit is involved) and will not sell advertising on the same page as any OAP Article;
ii. if you make an OAP Article available to others, you will
notice included on the original;
iii. if you make an OAP Article available on-line, you will
use reasonable efforts both to cite to the publisher’s definitive version of the article if it has been published,
and to provide a link to the publisher’s version if it is available on-line;
iv. you may not use a facsimile of the published version of
an article under these open access terms, unless the publisher so permits and that version has been made available
as an OAP Article on the Site;
v. you will not make any translation, adaptation or other
derivative work of an OAP Article, except that, as reasonably necessary in order to carry out a permitted use, you
may include the article in a collection or database, may change the technical format of the article, and may use
excerpts of the article for teaching or other permitted purposes, so long as, in each case, (A) your use of the
OAP Articles, (B) you do not misrepresent the substance of the article, and (C) your derivative of the article
includes a citation, hyperlink, or similar reference to the original article and appropriately identifies the
nature of the derivative work (e.g., “abridged from_____”); and
vi. you may not sublicense or otherwise transfer your rights
in effect from time to time.
If you have an article, report or research paper that you
understand or believe to be in violation of copyright please
contact us and we will remove it immediately while we investigate the circumstance.
This research is provided to interested parties who wish to broaden their understanding of subliminal priming
and all copyrights remain with the original authors. This page is provided in good faith with the
intention of promoting the studies and authors involved. If any author or copyright details are wrong or
need updating please contact us.